(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) The study set out to identify the mechanisms that make astrocytomas so aggressive and to find ways to customize treatment to patient needs.

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Investigators at the NCI Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology  discovered an Anti-TNF Induced Apoptosis (ATIA) protein, which protects cells against apoptosis.  ATIA is highly expressed in glioblastoma and astrocytomas and its inhibition results in increased cell sensitivity to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induced cell death.  Hence, ATIA assays ma y enable clinicians to effectively stratify patients for appropriate treatment.  ATIA exists in a soluble form that can be detected in culture medium of ATIA expressing cells indicating it could be used to develop a non-invasive, blood based diagnostic …

Brain tumors are the most common malignancy of childhood. Approximately 50% of pediatric CNS tumors are astrocytomas, most low grade. Low grade glioma (LGG) are WHO grade I or II tumors. Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common; accounts for 33% of all gliomas in children 0 –14 years and ∼18% of all childhood brain tumors. Prognosis with this slow-growing tumor is excellent; 10 year overall survival of ∼95%. However, event free survival averages ∼50%. Patient age and extent of tumor resection are key prognostic factors; tumor location and size impact resection and outcome.

Source: Cancer Genetics and CytogeneticsCategory: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor among children under 15, representing 20% of childhood cancers. Prognosis and therapeutic options vary dramatically based on histologic and molecular profiles. We have studied 222 brain tumors using the CHOP Comprehensive Solid Tumor Panel, which interrogates 238 cancer genes and 110 fusion partners. The most common tumors are pilocytic/pilomyxoid astrocytoma (67), medulloblastoma (23) and diffuse midline glioma (17). Clinically significant genomic alterations were identified in 93% of patients.

Source: Cancer Genetics and CytogeneticsCategory: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research

Temozolomide is an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent used in malignant neuroendocrine neoplasia, melanoma, brain metastases and an essential component of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Since 2006, it has been used for the treatment of pituitary carcinomas and aggressive pituitary adenomas. Here, we discuss the current indications and results of temozolomide therapy in pituitary tumors, as well as frequently asked questions regarding temozolomide treatment, duration of therapy, dosage, tumor recurrence and resistance.

Source: Endocrine-Related CancerCategory: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Thematic Review Source Type: research

Conclusion: A comprehensive method for detecting fusion genes in paediatric brain tumours was evaluated. This method identified KIAA1549–BRAF fusion variants quickly. Our results may help researchers interested in the role of fusion genes in tumourigenesis.

Source: Cancer Genomics and ProteomicsCategory: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

In this study, we identified Pygo2 expression features by immunohistochemistry in 73 central nervous system tumor specimens, in comparison with 14 normal brain tissues and surrounding non-tumorous tissues of tumor. Our study indicated that 59% of the patient tumor specimens exhibited positive Pygo2-staining and increases intensity with the grade of malignancy, especially for WHO grade III and IV gliomas, was observed high level expression, compared with normal brain tissues. Five out of nine WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas and seven out of nine WHO grade IV glioblastomas showed Pygo2-positive staining. The analysis o…

Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas originate from astrocytic glial cells or their precursor cells and are the most common type of brain tumors in adults. In this retrospective study, we investigated the conte…

Source: BMC CancerCategory: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Clinical implications of the HPV-16 infection &7 beneficial effects of optimal dose of Vitamin D3 in safe, effective cancer treatment: Non-invasive rapid cancer screening using “Mouth, Hand &Foot Writing Form” of 40 participants during 150- minute workshop on the Bi-Digital 0-ring Test, in the 1st day of European Congress for Integrative Medicine, September 9-11, 2016 in Budapest.
Acupunct Electrother Res. 2016;41(3-4):171-198
Authors: Omura Y
During the 1st day of European Congress for Integrative Medicine held September 9-11, 2016, almost the entire 1st day was scheduled fo…

Authors: Yen HC, Lin CL, Chen BS, Chen CW, Wei KC, Yang ML, Hsu JC, Hsu YH
Malignant astrocytoma is the most commonly occurring brain tumor in humans. Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cancers. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was found to exert tumor suppressive effect in basic research, but increased SOD2 protein level was associated with higher aggressiveness of human astrocytomas. However, studies reporting alterations of antioxidant enzymes in human astrocytomas often employed less accurate methods or included different types of tumors. Here we analyzed the mRNA levels, activities, and…

Source: Free Radical ResearchCategory: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

This study presents a unique series of malignant supratentorial gliomas in children previously cured from non-CNS primary cancer. On neuroimaging these tumors were not specific, so the patients were suspected of cerebral recurrence of their primary neoplasm: leukemia in four children and sarcoma in one child. Histologically, the group contained four glioblastomas and one anaplastic astrocytoma. Three patients underwent neurosurgical resection, while the other two underwent stereotactic diagnostic biopsy only. Despite combined oncological treatment, four children died during 20 months, and only one glioblastoma patient cont…

Source: Biomed ResCategory: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

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