(MedPage Today) — Major responses in pilot study for NSCLC, melanoma, bladder cancers
Checkpoint inhibitors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies have changed profoundly the treatment of melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and bladder cancer. Currently, they are tested in various tumor entities as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapies or targeted therapies. However, only a subgroup of patients benefit from checkpoint blockade (combinations).07/11/2018
Authors: Dranitsaris G, Zhu X, Adunlin G, Vincent MD
INTRODUCTION: After years of setback, cancer immunotherapy has begun to yield clinical dividends, which are changing the treatment landscape and offering cancer patients the potential for long-term survival, reduced treatment-related toxicity and improved quality-of-life. Using the immune system to treat cancer is known as ‘Immuno-oncology’ (IO) and agents are sub-classified by their ability to enhance anti-tumor response or to direct the immune system to attack cancer cells via tumor-associated antigens. Areas covered: Clinical trials have demonstrated …
This study describes for the first time a case of delayed autoimmunity occurring 8 months after discontinuing treatment with the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab in a patient with metastatic melanoma. The case highlights the need for ongoing surveillance of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors even after cessation of therapy, especially as patients increasingly stop treatment after achieving durable responses.
PMID: 29666298 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
AbstractOver the last two decades, molecular-targeted agents have become mainstream treatment for many types of malignancies and have improved the overall survival of patients. However, most patients eventually develop resistance to these targeted therapies. Recently, immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment paradigm for many types of malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Hodgkin ’s lymphoma, bladder cancer and gastric cancer. However…
Date: January 1, 2018
The immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab (Keytruda– Merck), a programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, has been granted accelerated approval by the FDA for use in adults and children who have unresectable or metastatic microsatellite-instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) solid tumors that have progressed following trea tment, and do not have any satisfactory alternative treatment options. For metastatic colorectal cancer, the indication is limited to tumors that have progressed following combination treatment w…
CONCLUSION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors are active against a number of tumors. In some cases, such as malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, the response rates are impressive and exceed those achieved with conventional chemotherapies. Future combinations with other treatment modalities, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may further improve the response rates.
PMID: 28871357 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
From portable genome sequencers until genetic tests revealing distant relations with Thomas Jefferson, genomics represents a fascinatingly innovative area of healthcare. As the price of genome sequencing has been in free fall for years, the start-up scene is bursting from transformative power. Let’s look at some of the most amazing ventures in genomics!
The amazing journey of genome sequencing
Genome sequencing has been on an amazing scientific as well as economic journey for the last three decades. The Human Genome Project began in 1990 with the aim of mapping the whole structure of the human genome and sequencing …
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PMID: 28393361 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
The advent of immuno-oncology (IO) drugs profoundly changes our understanding of cancer biology as well as the management of patients at bedside. This is especially true for melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma or bladder cancer, for which these drugs already demonstrated substantial improvements in the patients’ outcome. Beyond these indications, objective tumour responses have been reported in more than 20 different cancer types in early phase trials.
Immunotherapies have achieved remarkable success in treating different forms of cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, bladder cancer, synovial cell sarcoma, and multiple myeloma using immune checkpoint blockade or gene-engineered T-cells. Although gynecologic cancers have not been historically classified as immunogenic tumors, growing evidence has shown that they are in fact able to elicit endogenous antitumor immune responses suggesting that patients with these cancers may benefit from immunotherapy. Modest clinical success has been accomplished in early trials using immunotherapeutic…