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Much of what we think we know about cannabis may soon change as a result of new research that uncovers some surprising facts. Indeed, the topic, which can be emotionally charged, is the focus of intense scientific study. Is cannabis good for you? Is it addictive? What long-term harms can use cause? The answers to these questions are multi-layered and not always clear-cut, which is why cannabis research continues with even more urgency.
FACTS ON CANNABIS ADDICTION AND DEPENDENCE
Current estimates are that one in 10 cannabis users will develop cannabis addiction or dependence. The potency of the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent in marijuana, in today’s cannabis is much higher than in years past. Besides traditional marijuana use, designer drugs created from synthetic cannabinoids are growing in popularity – along with increased concern for their unknown addiction potential and negative health effects. According to a report from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction, at least 169 different synthetic cannabinoid compounds have been discovered since detection of the market’s first synthetic cannabinoid in 2008.
Using gene-based testing, four genes have been identified that are significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use:

Neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) – which is also associated with substance abuse
Cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2)
Potassium sodium-activated channel subfamily T member 2 …

Source: Psych CentralCategory: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Addictions Habits Healthy Living Memory and Perception Miscellaneous Drugs Neuroscience Substance Abuse Source Type: news

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ConclusionsRates of stethoscope and hand hygiene performance were lower than expected. Further investigation of stethoscope contamination and the associated risk of nosocomial infection are needed. Perhaps clearer guidelines on proper stethoscope cleaning would reduce this risk.

Improved survival among HIV-1-infected individuals with the advent of antiretroviral therapy has clearly led to a greater prevalence of noninfectious complications. One of the most devastating sequelae in these individuals is the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Various epidemiological studies suggest worse survival of HIV-PAH patients when compared with other forms of PAH. Given that only a subset and not all HIV-infected individuals develop HIV-PAH, it is suggested that an additional second-hit of genetic or environmental trigger is needed for the development of PAH. In this context, it has been well…

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: EDITORIAL REVIEW Source Type: research

Conclusion:
Even in the effective antiretroviral therapy era, pain remains common in PLWH and has a major impact on quality-of-life and associated healthcare and societal costs. Interventions are required to assist clinicians and PLWH to proactively manage pain.

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Background:
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased mortality so that increasing numbers of children with HIV are reaching adolescence. However, longstanding HIV infection and/or its treatment in children is associated with noninfectious complications including cardiac disease. We investigated the prevalence, spectrum and risk factors for echocardiographic abnormalities among children established on ART.
Methods:
HIV-infected children aged 6–16 years, on ART at least 6 months were enrolled into a cross-sectional study from a public-sector paediatric HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. A standardized examination i…

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Conclusion:
This study reports for the first time an association between IFNL3/4 polymorphisms and susceptibility to AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Conclusion:
Model performance was suboptimal in women with and at risk of HIV, while greater misclassification was generally observed among HIV-positive women. HIV-specific risk factors known to contribute to diabetes risk should be explored in these models.

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Conclusion:
From a U.S. healthcare sector perspective, when the male partner was not reliably suppressed, PrEP became economically attractive, and in some cases, cost-saving.

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research

Conclusion:
HPV16 prevalence is lower in African American compared with Caucasian women with HIV and cervical precancer, independent of immune status. Future studies to determine why these racial differences exist are warranted, and whether there are similar associations between race and invasive cervical cancer in women with HIV. Further, HPV types not covered by quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines may play an especially important role in cervical precancer among HIV-positive African American women, a possible advantage to using nonavalent HPV vaccine in this population.

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

No abstract available

Source: AIDSCategory: Infectious Diseases Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

This study aimed to validate the synergistic effect of ABT-737 on docetaxel using MDA-MB-231, a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line overexpressing B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2).
Methods: Western blot analysis was performed to assess expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-related molecules. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry analysis. Benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk) was used for pretreatment to assess the role of caspases.
Results: Cel…

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