Diabetes Mellitus is a predominant and familiar metabolic disorder that features elevated blood glucose concentrations and accelerated cardiovascular disease, progressive peripheral nerve disease, kidney injury, and progressive retinal disease. Elevated blood glucose concentrations capture attention first. One may present to the doctor's office with weakness, unusual sleepiness, unusually high urine flow, unusual thirst, and weight loss. The doctor will suspect an episode of diabetes mellitus and order glucose testing. In this context, a random non-fasting blood glucose concentration above 200 mg / dL will determine that diabetes mellitus exists with no uncertainty. If the glucose concentration is measured after a period of fasting, a value above 140 mg / dL determines that diabetes mellitus exists with no uncertainty.

Diabetes mellitus is clarified by one's doctor as either Type 1 Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus features insulin deficient and elevated blood glucose concentrations. The doctor can order insulin insulin testing to verify insulin defic.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus most often evolves in children and young adults as a result of immune attack on the insulin producing cells of one's pancreas. These cells are called Islet cells because they exist as tiny congregations of cells that appear as "islands" when viewed under a microscope. The immune attack injures and even destroys these insulin producing cells, and the lack of insulin in one's blood then allows glucose concentrations to rise far above the normal range.

It is one of pancreas that centrally senses one's blood glucose concentrations and then secretes insulin in response to the signaled glucose level. This is the job and purpose of the pancreatic Islet cells. Then the secreted insulin travels through one's blood stream specifically to transfer circulating glucose into tissues and cells, where the cells use the glucose as essential energy. But, if the pancreas Islets are not sensitive blood glucose concentrations with accuracy or if the pancreas Islets can not secret insulin because the sensing and secrecy cells are destroyed, then the glucose concentration in one's bloodstream will rise and rise more. The levels can become very high, in some persons exceeding 1000 mg / dL.

The circulating glucose is not yet being used by the body's cells and tissues and in a sense, the organs are "starving" in the "mid of plenty." We call abnormally elevated blood glucose concentrations "hyperglycemia" – meaning "high glucose in the blood."

Blood glucose that circulates at abnormally high levels is treated in one's urine. It is excreted. The glucose "spills" into one's urine and that is lost from the body. In one sense, this is protective. In another sense, essential energy is being lost simply into urine.

A consequence of high glucose loss in one's urine is a high excretion of water, too. Glucose traveling into and through the urine acts to pull water with it. Glucose spilling at high levels into the kidney acts as a "diuretic." Thus, a person with hyperglycemia will notice high urinary flow, and the ongoing high urine volume in this setting will dehydrate a person quickly.

A person with hyperglycemia will also note unusual thirst. One reason for this thirst is simply the dehydration from the unnatural diuretic action of the high glucose load traveling into the urine. A second reason is a brain signal from the hyperglycemia, where the brain senses an unusual substance concentration in the blood stream and thus signals thirst, aiming to induce higher water intake in order to dilute this substance in the blood.

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is unstable, brittle, and can be rapidly dangerous if not treated. It is fairly diagnosed with measurement of inappropriately low insulin levels in one's blood along with high glucose and the presence of Islet Cell Antibodies. The Islet Cells are those pancreas cells that normally produce insulin but now are under attack by one's immune system with antibodies.

The treatment for Type 1 Diabetes centers on careful and precise diet adjustments along with insulin replacement. Insulin replacement is essential. The amount of insulin needed varies from person to person, but insulin deficiency is the primary problem and insulin replacement is thus supremely essential. Any person diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus must inject insulin daily at proper amounts. These amounts are prescribed to fit the person. Any missed injections will result in rapid increases in glucose, weakness, thirst, and high urine flow.

If you have Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, be informed, be aware, be diligent with your care, and be precise. Controlling blood sugar to normal levels is essential day by day, month by month, and year by year.

Source by Rex L. Mahnensmith, MD


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