Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse. It effects over 5 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world. Because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist .In this article, we will discuss what exhibits the cause of infertility.
I. Hormonal Imbalance
a) In men
When the men get older, the levels of testosterone start to drop and the levels of the by-product prolactin of testosterone of men increases, stimulating the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase that causes the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosteronescausing leading to many problems such as erectile and abnormal sperm production.
b) In women
At the age of 35 or older, some women start to enter the state of peri menopause, leading to irregular menstrual cycle as resulting of low levels of estrogen resulting ovarian inability to response to the FSH hormone and produce mature eggs.
A good living lifestyle may be helpful for preventing diseases and preserve health, but times the good living lifestyle also a cause of hormone imbalance. Some women with unexplained infertility may be caused by exercise such as running or joking 10 km a day, playing tennis everyday which stimulate the brain primitive function causing hormone imbalance and absence of menstrual cycle because there are so much energy have been spent on daily sport there are nothing left for the function to produce eggs or sperm.
3. Thyroid diseases
It is defined as a condition in which our body produces too much thyroid hormone causing low levels of estrogen which can not trigger the production of LH then ovulation leading to infertility.
Hypothyroisim is defined as very little thyroid hormone is produced by the thyroid gland leading to irregular ovulation and increasing production of prolactin causing production of immature eggs.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia which presents at birth, it affect both boy and girl alike. It efects adrenal gland to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone leading to high levels of testosterone hormone.
5. Sluggish liver
Liver is important for regulating the balance of essential fatty acid. Our daily today contains more meats and high levels of saturated fat and trans fat, which interfere the liver function and leading to over production of certain hormone, disrupting the normal menstrual cycles and normal function of male reproductive organ such as erectile dysfunction.
6. Klinefelter’s syndrome
Genetic male defect with one chormocome Y and 2 chromosome X. It causes levels of testosterone hormone leading to female pattern including enlarged breast, small penis and normal sperm production.
II. Testicle problems
Biking may be a healthy sport but biking off the mountain road it may injure the penis and cause the scrotum problem including lower sperm production and interfering with natural selection in the body. It is advice for people to take precaution to avoid swelling, pain or damaging the reproductive system.
2. Immune system
Immune system plays an important role in fighting the forming of free radical and foreign invasion such as bacteria and virus. Any infection or allergic reaction in the body may cause over production of antibody leading to immune system attacking fetus and the sperm which interferes the sperm quality, movement and sperm cervical invasion.
3. Aspirin overdose
It is said that small dose of aspirin help to increase fertility in women by increasing the coagulant effects and decreasing the risk of antibody attacking the fetus. Over dose of aspirin may damage the stomach lining in absorbing vital vitamins and minerals leading to infertility and birth defect.
4. Medical condition
Medical condition such as azoospermia which reduces the level of sperm in his semen caused by blocking of the reproductive tract including blocking of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and ejaculation ducts resulting in infertility.
Epipadas is a type of birth defect in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect of the penis leading to abnormal ejaculation and interfering with penis erection.
6. Testicular cancer
Testicular cancer is defined as forming of free radicals in the testicle becoming cancerous in the testicle. Study show that men with poor quality and quantity of sperm production is considered as high risk to develop testicle cancer.
7. Testicular enzyme defect
A congenital enzyme defect that interfere with normal process of the testes in sperm production as resulting of inability of the test in responding to hormone stimulation.
III. Cervical Conditions
1. Irregular cells growth
Irregular cells growth or forming of free radicals on the surface of the cervical canal as resulting of infection, inflammation or abnormal response to high levels of estrogen leading to heavy bleeding and obstruct the cervical opening causing infertility.
2. Birth defects
Cervical problems are caused by abnormal formation of cervix at birth may cause abnormal mucus production which is hostile to sperm invasion
a) Congenital problem
women who is pregnant but do not know that certain types of medication may interfere the cell division in the fetus leading to abnormal formation of cervix to the fetus which effects the mucus production..
b) Medical problem
Several abortions are the leading cause of cervical damage which increases the risk of adhesion in the cervix leading to abnormal function of cervix including cervix not open for sperm invasion or closed to allow pregnancy to proceed to term.
c) Estrogen problem
Women with low levels of estrogen a few days before and after ovulation may cause inability of cervix in production of cervical mucus which are friendly to sperm invasion.
3. Infection and inflammation
Women who have frequent cervicitis as resulting of inflammation or infection to the cervix may cause abnormal production of cervical mucus and reduce the chance to conceive.
Women who took dietthylstilbestrol to prevent miscarriage during pregnancy in the 50-60 may unknowingly increase the risk of deformities to the child reproductive organs including abnormal cervix.
IV. Vaginal conditions
1. Genetic defect
Vaginal adenosis is defined as a genetic defect caused by the mother taking the medication diethylstinesterol during pregnancy leading to abnormal vagina to the fetus and increasing the risk of cervical cancer for the mother.
2. Infection and inflammation
Abnormal vaginal discharge caused by infection, low levels of estrogen, or allergies may damage the vagina’s inner lining. Frequent vaginitis may increase the risk of adhesion in the pelvic region or tubal blockage leading to infertility by reducing the chance of successful sperm invasion.
Vaginosis is an infectious disease which distorts the balance of bacteria in the vagina leading to smelly discharge which is toxic to sperm thereby interfering with sperm’s cervical invasion.
Some women use lubricant during sexual intercourse to smoothen the penis’s penetration and reduce irritation, but it may cause a toxic effect on sperm.
Douching may be used to reduce the risk of infection caused by bacteria in or around the women vagina, but it may affect the quality of cervical mucus and interfere with the sperm’s cervical invasion, thereby increasing the risk of infertility.
V. Uterine conditions
1. Irregular cells Growth
Endometriosis and fibroids may increase the risk of infertility because they interfere with the implantation of fertilized egg into the uterus or the ability of uterus to carry the pregnancy to full term if they grow large enough.
2. Birth defects
Birth defect which causes abnormal formation of uterus may interfere with the normal conception and some of these malforming may never be diagnosed such as:
a) Unicornuate uterus is formed from one only of the paired mullerian ducts while the other mullerian duct does not develop.
b) Sepate uterus
Women who was born with sepate uterus and bicornate uterus may see their pregnancy end with premature birth of miscarriage because of little room for the fetus to grow.
c) Rokitansky syndrome
An inherit birth defect with a malformation of vagina and absence of uterus.
3. Sexual transmitted diseases
Gonorrhea is sexual transmitting disease caused by bacteria Neisseria gonococcus leading to infection and inflammation to the uterus and Fallopian tube in women and epididymitis in men resulting in tubal damage causing infertility and miscarriage.
4. Asherman’s syndrome
Asherman’s syndrome is a condition characterized by the presence of scars within the uterine cavity. It is caused by scars after a D&C is performed on a recently pregnant uterus including a missed or incomplete miscarriage, birth, or elective termination in removing retained products of conception and placental remains causing endometrium inability to response to the estrogen during menstrual cycle leading to infertility.
5. Immune system
Immune system guards our body from foreign bacteria and virus, but sometimes may be over react to our body infection or inflammation or allergic response causing immune system attacks the reproductive sperm in men and women alike resulting in infertility
Gonorrhea is sexual transmitting disease caused by bacteria Neisseria gonococcus leading to infection and inflammation in the uterus and Fallopian tube in women and epididymitis in men .
2. Pelvic inflammation disease (PID)
PID is defined as a condition of an acute infection in the pelvic caused by sexual transmitted diseases leading infertility if the scar forming in the Fallopian tube blocks the tube completely.
A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg is implanted itself around where the fallopian tubes reach the uterus, It often end with miscarriage.
4. Tubal problem
The Fallopian is the tube that helps to retrieve egg from the ovaries and coax it toward the uterus and oncoming sperm. Tubal problem is caused by scar tissue restricting the movement of the egg or sperm including endometrial adhesion and implants.
Ureaplasia urealyticum is a types of bacteria infection as resulting of sexual disease transmitting between partner. It causes no symptoms but interferes with the reproductive processes including tubal disease.
VII. Ovarian Conditions
1. Ovarian failure
Ovarian failure is a condition in which a women with age younger than 40 but she has experience the loss of ovarian function ( early menopause) as resulting of low levels of estrogen and high levels of FSH hormone.
2. Ovarian resistance
For what ever reason, some women’s ovaries do not response to FSH stimulation leading to no developing follicle. sSome researchers believe it is caused deficiency of FSH and LH receptors in the ovaries or post receptor defect.
3. Ovarian dygenesis
It is caused by the extra X chromosome defective at birth leading to sterility.
4. Kallmann’s syndrome
Kallmann’s syndrome is a birth defect syndrome which causes malfunction of hypothalamus gland in secreting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone leading to delay of puberty.
a) In men, it causes low levels of testosterone resulting of small size penis, cryptorchism leading to infertility because of no sperm during ejaculation.
b) In women, it causes no menstrual period and no egg production.
A condition caused by over production of thyroid hormone in the body produces that interfere the production of estrogen causing inability of pituitary gland to trigger the production of LH then ovulation leading to infertility.
6. Cushing’s syndrome
Cushing’s syndrome is a condition in which too much cortisol hormone is produced by adrenal gland leading to lower sperm production in male and abnormal ovulation in women.
VIII. Abnormal Cell Growth
Xanoestrogen is also known as environment estrogen acts as estrogen. Accumulated of such toxins in the liver may block and interfere our body’s reproductive normal functions including low sperm count, abnormal sperm production and movement.
Some people may not aware exposing themselves in certain chemical environment such as house building in previous dump site, living closed to some chemical processing site, etc. will interfere the body hormone production leading to reproductive abnormal function resulting in increasing the risk of birth defect, infertility and miscarriage.
Chemicals such as DDT, PCP and furans used in agriculture. freezer, etc. reduce the quality and lower the sperm count in men leading to infertility. In women, such chemicals may cause child defect and miscarriage.
5. Immune system
Malfunction of immune system caused by imbalance of our body qi and blood accordimg to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interferes with the reproductive process including the inflammation to cells which are vital involved in the processes of ovulation , preparation for implantation of a embryo ( malfunction of endometrial lining) and sperm quality ad quantity (Antibody attack his own sperm).
Occupations which expose to high amount of hazardous chemicals, such as welder, steel processing may distort the normal processes of reproductive organs leading to eggs and sperm damaging such as low quality of egg and sperm and other reproductive diseases.
1. Genetic passing through
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is present at birth and can affect both boy and girl alike. It is caused by the lack an enzyme which is vital for the adrenal gland to make the hormones cortisol and aldosterone resulting in higher than normal testosterone hormone in the body. While girl is born with muscular appearance with high levels of testosterone hormone, it leads to abnormal menstrual period and causing infertility. The disease may be difficult to diagnosis in boy, but it may interfere with the growth and normal function of the reproductive organ including the test and penis leading to infertility.
Some medicine used in the 50 -60 to prevent miscarriage such as dietthylstilbestrol interfere with the normal process of the reproductive organs leading to increasing the risk of deformities to the child reproductive organs including abnormal cervix and uterus.
Epipadas is a type of birth defect happened to men as the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect of the penis. although men was born with epipadas having normal sperm production, but it causes the ejaculating problem as sperm can not deposit diectedly into the cervix leading to infertility.
6. DNA duplication
Normally men carry X and Y chromosome and women carry XX chromosome, For what ever reason, if there are some abnormal formations of chromosome such as abnormality part of Y chromosome or loss of large part of Y chromosome, it may cause lower sperm count and interfere with fertility.
X. Infectious diseases
1. Sexual transmitted Diseases
Most bacteria infect the reproductive system through unprotected sexual intercourse and are happened mostly to women and men with several partners.
a) Pelvic inflammation disease (PID)
PID is caused by sexual transmitted diseases to the pelvic region leading infertility if the scar as resulting of infection forming in the Fallopian tube blocks the tube completely.
Gonorrhea is also a sexual transmitting disease which infects the uterus and Fallopian tube in women and epididymitis in men.
Epididymitis is defined as inflammation of epididumis caused by bacteria, sexual transmitting diseases and urinary tract infection leading to infertility if infection spread to testicles.
Vaginosis is often caused by death of certain bacteria which helps to balance the production of bacteria in the vagina as resulting of douching or certain products to reduce pain during sexual intercourse or vaginal cleaning product.
3. Bacteria infection
Vaginitis infection causes low levels of estrogen increase the risk of allergic reaction leading to abnormal vagina discharge. In some servere cases, it causes adhesion in the pelvic region or tubal blockage.
b) Ureaplasma urealyticum
Ureaplasia urealyticum is a types of bacteria infection with no symptoms and sexual transmitted between partner, it causes tubal disease, decrease sperm movement and quality causing infertility if left untreat.
4. Weakening immune system
We know that immune system is important to defense our body fighting against bacteria and virus causing sickness such as cold and flu or infection. In fact, immune system also helps to regulate the duplication of DNA and cells growth in the region where it suppose to grow. Weakened immune system causes irregular cells grow in the wrong organ leading to abnormal adhesion and implants causing inflammation.