With the evolution of industrialization, globalization with economical liberalisation, & technological upgradation, individual`s life-style has been changing. Individuals with particular type of genetic inheritance are predisposed to certain diseases trigerred by life-style existing factors.
Diet, life-style & environment are three important determinants related to cause of diseases. Inadequate intake of nutritional foods, consumption of junk foods & beverages,such as, tea, coffee, alcohol have lessen the strength & stamina needed for defensive mechanism of the body. Environmental pollution is the result of industrialization & deforestation, which have endanger the health of the inhabitants. Individuals are dedicated to long working hours, working in night shifts, & with no physical activity have lead to sedentary life-style. They are engaged with mental tension & anxiety,striving hard to sustain with the economical & social circumstances of the society. They easily adapt to unwanted habits,such as, smoking, alcohol consumption & intake drugs to relieve stress. These all perpetuate & accentuate the process of disease in the individuals, which they become easily susceptible too.
Diet rich in cholesterol & saturated fats raises the plasma cholesterol level, which builds atherosclerosis of the arteries involving high risk to coronary heart disease.other contributing factors involved are, such as, insufficient regular physical activity, competitive stressful life-style with typeA personality behavior, use of contraceptives, cigarette smoking, & diabetes. Texas heart institute estimated coronary heart disease affecting almost 13 millions of Americans with consequences of high mortality rate.
Increase intake of calories in excess of utilization gets stored in the form of unneeded energy in fat cells, which give rise to disease condition called obesity.Obesity involves high risk factors to diseases,such as, type2 diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis, & cancer.
The international diabetes federation estimated number of diabetic patients in India more than doubled from 19 million in 1995 to 40.9 million in 2007. High incidence of diabetes is mainly because of sedentary life-style, that is, lack of physical activity, obesity, stress, & consumption of diets rich in fat, sugar, & calories.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is fourth leading cause of death in the united states causing long-term disability with more than 12 million been diagnosed. Emphysema & chronic bronchitis are caused by heavy cigarette smoking, inhaling substances,such as pollutants-smoke, fumes, & microbilogical infections.
Stoke is a medical emergency, characterized by rapidly developing loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain caused by thrombosis,or haemorrhage in the blood vessels. It is especially seen in individuals with complaints of high blood pressure, high cholesterol count, smoking, diabetes, & increasing age.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of prime interest,because the reservoir of infection is human. WHO reported 33.4 million people living with HIV / AIDS worldwide in 2008, & only about 4 million HIV positive people having access to antiretroviral therapy.
Chronic renal failure can be detected as an increase in serum creatinine or protein in the urine, especially in those suffering from high blood pressure & diabetes.
Alzheimer`s disease is a slowly progressive disease of the brain,that is characterised by impairment of memory & eventually by disturbance in reasoning, planing, language, & perception. Most patients develop this disease after the age of 70 years, however, 2% – 5% of patients develop in the fourth or fifth decade of life ( 40s / 50s).
In many countries of the western world including the United states,cirrhosis is one of the ten leading causes of death attrributed by the implication of alcohol abuse.
Cancer has been the number two cause of death. Cancer of prostrate, lung, colorectal bladder, non-hodgkins lymphoma are reported in males. Females suffers from cancer of breast, lung, colorectal, uterus, & ovary.