Kidney biopsy-based epidemiologic analysis shows growing biopsy rate among the elderly


  • 1.

    Fiorentino, M. et al. Renal biopsy in 2015—From epidemiology to evidence-based indications. Am. J. Nephrol. 43, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1159/000444026 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 2.

    Simon, P. et al. Epidemiologic data of primary glomerular diseases in western France. Kidney Int. 66, 905–908. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00834.x (2004).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 3.

    Zink, C. M. et al. Trends of renal diseases in Germany: Review of a regional renal biopsy database from 1990 to 2013. Clin. Kidney J. 12, 795–800. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfz023 (2019).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 4.

    Hanko, J. B. et al. The changing pattern of adult primary glomerular disease. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24, 3050–3054. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfp254 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 5.

    McQuarrie, E. P. et al. Centre variation in incidence, indication and diagnosis of adult native renal biopsy in Scotland. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24, 1524–1528. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn677 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 6.

    van Paassen, P., van Breda Vriesman, P. J., van Rie, H. & Tervaert, J. W. Signs and symptoms of thin basement membrane nephropathy: A prospective regional study on primary glomerular disease—The Limburg Renal Registry. Kidney Int. 66, 909–913. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00835.x (2004).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 7.

    Braun, N. et al. Epidemiology of glomerulonephritis in Northern Germany. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 43, 1117–1126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-011-9955-4 (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 8.

    Kurnatowska, I. et al. Trends in the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerular diseases in the adult population in central Poland in the years 1990–2010. Kidney Blood Press Res. 35, 254–258. https://doi.org/10.1159/000334418 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 9.

    Maixnerova, D. et al. Nationwide biopsy survey of renal diseases in the Czech Republic during the years 1994–2011. J. Nephrol. 28, 39–49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40620-014-0090-z (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 10.

    Menyhárt, O., Fekete, J. T. & Győrffy, B. Demographic shift disproportionately increases cancer burden in an aging nation: Current and expected incidence and mortality in Hungary up to 2030. Clin. Epidemiol. 10, 1093–1108. https://doi.org/10.2147/clep.S155063 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 11.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, E. O. o. H. S. & Policies. Hungary: Country Health Profile (2019).

  • 12.

    Monga, D. & Jhaveri, K. D. Glomerular diseases and cancer. in Onco-Nephrology Curriculum. https://www.asn-online.org/education/distancelearning/curricula/onco/Chapter6.pdf (American Society of Nephrology, 2016).

  • 13.

    Bidani, A. K. & Griffin, K. A. Pathophysiology of hypertensive renal damage: Implications for therapy. Hypertension 44, 595–601. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000145180.38707.84 (2004).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 14.

    Lim, A. K. Diabetic nephropathy—Complications and treatment. Int. J. Nephrol. Renov. Dis. 7, 361–381. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S40172 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 15.

    OECD, Systems, E. O. o. H. & Policies. Hungary: Country Health Profile 2019 (2019).

  • 16.

    Collaborators G. B. D. M. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950–2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 392, 1684–1735. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31891-9 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 17.

    Fiorentino, M. et al. Renal biopsy in 2015—From epidemiology to evidence-based indications. Am. J. Nephrol. 43, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1159/000444026 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 18.

    Amodu, A., Porteny, T., Schmidt, I. M., Ladin, K. & Waikar, S. S. Nephrologists’ attitudes towards native kidney biopsy: A qualitative study. Kidney Med. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2021.06.014 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 19.

    Swaminathan, S. et al. Changing incidence of glomerular disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota: A 30-year renal biopsy study. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1, 483–487. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.00710805 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 20.

    Sugiyama, H. et al. Japan renal biopsy registry and Japan kidney disease registry: Committee report for 2009 and 2010. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 17, 155–173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10157-012-0746-8 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 21.

    Li, L. S. & Liu, Z. H. Epidemiologic data of renal diseases from a single unit in China: Analysis based on 13,519 renal biopsies. Kidney Int. 66, 920–923. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00837.x (2004).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 22.

    Naumovic, R., Pavlovic, S., Stojkovic, D., Basta-Jovanovic, G. & Nesic, V. Renal biopsy registry from a single centre in Serbia: 20 years of experience. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 24, 877–885. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn564 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 23.

    Polenakovic, M. H., Grcevska, L. & Dzikova, S. The incidence of biopsy-proven primary glomerulonephritis in the Republic of Macedonia-long-term follow-up. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 18(Suppl 5), v26–v27. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfg1039 (2003).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 24.

    Oygar, D. D. & Neild, G. H. Reporting renal biopsies from Cyprus: A systematic approach. J. Nephropathol. 6, 231–239. https://doi.org/10.15171/jnp.2017.38 (2017).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 25.

    Ahmad, M. Y. et al. 6th Report of the Malaysian Registry OS Renal Biopsy (Malaysian Society of Nephrology, 2017).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 26.

    Ben Maiz, H., Abderrahim, E., Ben Moussa, F., Goucha, R. & Karoui, C. Epidemiology of glomerular diseases in Tunisia from 1975 to 2005. Influence of changes in healthcare and society. Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 190, 403–416 (2006) (discussion 416–408).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 27.

    Barsoum, R. S. & Francis, M. R. Spectrum of glomerulonephritis in egypt. Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transpl. 11, 421–429 (2000).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 28.

    McLigeyo, S. O. Gromerular diseases in Kenya—Another look at diseases characterised by nephrotic proteinura. Afr. J. Health Sci. 1, 185–190 (1994).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 29.

    Turkmen, A. et al. Epidemiological features of primary glomerular disease in Turkey: A multicenter study by the Turkish Society of Nephrology Glomerular Diseases Working Group. BMC Nephrol. 21, 481. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-02134-8 (2020).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 30.

    Jegatheesan, D. et al. Epidemiology of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in Queensland adults. Nephrology (Carlton) 21, 28–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/nep.12559 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 31.

    Hizon, M. A. P. et al. Sun-014 epidemiology of glomerulonephritis in Southeast Asia: The GN-special (glomerulonephritis-Singapore–Philippines epidemiology cohorts in adults) study. Kidney Int. Rep. 4, S158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.05.408 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 32.

    Nadium, W. K., Abdelwahab, H. H., Ibrahim, M. A. & Shigidi, M. M. Histological pattern of primary glomerular diseases among adult Sudanese patients: A single center experience. Indian J. Nephrol. 23, 176–179. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.111838 (2013).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 33.

    Chavez Valencia, V. et al. Epidemiology of glomerular disease in adults: A database review. Gac. Med. Mex. 150, 403–408 (2014).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 34.

    Arias, L. F. et al. Glomerular diseases in a Hispanic population: Review of a regional renal biopsy database. Sao Paulo Med. J. 127, 140–144. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1516-31802009000300006 (2009).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 35.

    Storch, S. et al. Kidney diseases in North Israel according to kidney biopsies—Bnai-Zion medical center 14 years’ experience. Harefuah 155, 537–541 (2016).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 36.

    Al Riyami, D., Al Shaaili, K., Al Bulushi, Y., Al Dhahli, A. & Date, A. The spectrum of glomerular diseases on renal biopsy: Data from a single tertiary center in oman. Oman Med. J. 28, 213–215. https://doi.org/10.5001/omj.2013.58 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 37.

    Mubarak, M. et al. Pattern of renal diseases observed in native renal biopsies in adults in a single centre in Pakistan. Nephrology (Carlton) 16, 87–92. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1797.2010.01410.x (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 38.

    Garyal, K. R. K. Hisopathological spectrum of glomerular disease in Nepal: A seven-year retrospective study. Nepal Med. Coll. J. 10, 126–128 (2008).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 39.

    Islam, S. M. J., Haque, W. S., Akhter, S. & Mahbubul Alam, S. M. Histomorphological pattern of renal biopsy in Dhaka: A single center study. Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transpl. 29, 1159–1164. https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.243940 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 40.

    Bach, N., Huynh, L., Linh, H. T. & Thang, D. Indications and histologic patterns of biopsy-proven kidney diseases in Vietnamese adult patients. J. Clin. Nephrol. Res. 3, 1052 (2016).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 41.

    Santa Cruz, F., Cabrera, W., Barreto, S., Mayor, M. M. & Baez, D. Kidney disease in Paraguay. Kidney Int. Suppl. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.09720.x (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 42.

    Pakasa, M., Mangani, N. & Dikassa, L. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in nephrotic syndrome: A new profile of adult nephrotic syndrome in Zaire. Mod. Pathol. 6, 125–128 (1993).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 43.

    Onwubuya, I. M., Adelusola, K. A., Sabageh, D., Ezike, K. N. & Olaofe, O. O. Biopsy-proven renal disease in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: A histopathologic review. Indian J. Nephrol. 26, 16–22. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.155732 (2016).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 44.

    Sipiczki, T. et al. The incidence of renal diseases as diagnosed by biopsy in Hungary. Orv. Hetil. 145, 1373–1379 (2004).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 45.

    Légrády, P. B. A. et al. Overview of a 10 years kidney biopsies data from the nephrological and blodd pressure center szeged. Hypertonia és Nephrologia 2019, 115–123 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 46.

    Wirta, O., Mustonen, J., Helin, H. & Pasternack, A. Incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 23, 193–200. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfm564 (2008).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 47.

    Brazdziute, E. et al. Nationwide renal biopsy data in Lithuania 1994–2012. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 47, 655–662. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-015-0927-y (2015).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 48.

    Riispere, Z. & Ots-Rosenberg, M. Occurrence of kidney diseases and patterns of glomerular disease based on a 10-year kidney biopsy material: A retrospective single-centre analysis in Estonia. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 46, 389–394. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365599.2012.693133 (2012).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 49.

    Heaf, J. The Danish renal biopsy register. Kidney Int. 66, 895–897. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00832.x (2004).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 50.

    Schena, F. P. Survey of the Italian registry of renal biopsies. Frequency of the renal diseases for 7 consecutive years. The Italian group of renal immunopathology. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 12, 418–426. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/12.3.418 (1997).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 51.

    Rivera, F., Lopez-Gomez, J. M., Perez-Garcia, R., Spanish Registry of, G. Frequency of renal pathology in Spain 1994–1999. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 17, 1594–1602. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/17.9.1594 (2002).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 52.

    Briganti, E. M. et al. The incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis in Australia. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 16, 1364–1367. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/16.7.1364 (2001).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 53.

    Carvalho, E., do Sameiro Faria, M., Nunes, J. P., Sampaio, S. & Valbuena, C. Renal diseases: A 27-year renal biopsy study. J. Nephrol. 19, 500–507 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 54.

    Reisæter, A. e. a. The Norwegian Renal Registry, Annual Report 2018 (The Norwegian Renal Association, Oslo UniversityHospital-Rikshospitalet, 2018).

  • 55.

    Shcherbak, K. Epidemiology and Outcome of Glomerular Disease in Iceland: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study, 1983–2002 (University of Iceland, 2017).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 56.

    Herdson, P. B., Ojeda, V. J. & Teague, C. A. Renal biopsy pathology in Auckland, 1969–1976. N. Z. Med. J. 86, 5–6 (1977).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 57.

    Horvatic, I. et al. Epidemiologic data of adult native biopsy-proven renal diseases in Croatia. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 45, 1577–1587. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-013-0397-z (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 58.

    Dobronravov, V., Muzhetskaya, T., Lin, D. & Kochoyan, Z. Immunoglobulin A-nephropathy in Russian population: Clinical and morphological presentation and long-term prognosis. Nephrology (Saint-Petersburg) 23, 45–60. https://doi.org/10.36485/1561-6274-2019-236-45-60 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 59.

    Naini, A. E., Harandi, A. A., Ossareh, S., Ghods, A. & Bastani, B. Prevalence and clinical findings of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritidis in Iran. Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transpl. 18, 556–564 (2007).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 60.

    Jalalah, S. Changing frequency of glomerular diseases in Western Saudi Arabia: A 26-year experience. J. Microsc. Ultrastruct. 8, 89–95. https://doi.org/10.4103/jmau.Jmau_64_19 (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 61.

    Polito, M. G., de Moura, L. A. & Kirsztajn, G. M. An overview on frequency of renal biopsy diagnosis in Brazil: Clinical and pathological patterns based on 9,617 native kidney biopsies. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 25, 490–496. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfp355 (2010).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 62.

    Mazzuchi, N. et al. Frequency of diagnosis and clinic presentation of glomerulopathies in Uruguay. Nefrologia 25, 113–120 (2005).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 63.

    Cerdas, M. Chronic kidney disease in Costa Rica. Kidney Int. Suppl. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.09705.x (2005).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 64.

    Aatif, T., Maoujoud, O., Montasser, D. I., Benyahia, M. & Oualim, Z. Glomerular diseases in the Military Hospital of Morocco: Review of a single centre renal biopsy database on adults. Indian J. Nephrol. 22, 257–263. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.101244 (2012).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 65.

    Al Arrayed, A., Shariff, S. & Al Maamari, M. Kidney disease in Bahrain: A biopsy based epidemiologic study. Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transplant. 18, 638–642 (2007).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 66.

    Choi, I. J. et al. An analysis of 4,514 cases of renal biopsy in Korea. Yonsei Med. J. 42, 247–254. https://doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2001.42.2.247 (2001).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 67.

    Albaar, A. et al. Sun-391 histopathology pattern of renal biopsy in nephrotic syndrome patients: A single centre study in Hasanuddin University Teaching Hospital, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Kidney Int. Rep. 5, S360–S361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2020.02.931 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 68.

    Barbour, S. et al. An overview of the British Columbia Glomerulonephritis network and registry: Integrating knowledge generation and translation within a single framework. BMC Nephrol. 14, 236. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2369-14-236 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 69.

    Mbakop, A., Youmbissi, T. J., Gonsu, J. D., Chatelanat, F. & Ngu, J. L. Renal puncture biopsy in nephrotic syndrome in Cameroonian children, adolescent and adults: Histopathologic profile according to age. Arch. Anat. Cytol. Pathol. 38, 104–107 (1990).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 70.

    Das, U., Dakshinamurty, K. V. & Prayaga, A. Pattern of biopsy-proven renal disease in a single center of south India: 19 years experience. Indian J. Nephrol. 21, 250–257. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.85482 (2011).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 71.

    Covic, A. et al. Epidemiology of renal disease in Romania: A 10 year review of two regional renal biopsy databases. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 21, 419–424. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfi207 (2006).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 72.

    Borok, M. Z., Nathoo, K. J., Gabriel, R. & Porter, K. A. Clinicopathological features of Zimbabwean patients with sustained proteinuria. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 43, 152–158 (1997).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 73.

    Niang, A. et al. Nephrotic syndrom with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in Dakar: Epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics (about 134 cases). Dakar Med. 53, 45–51 (2008).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 74.

    Yahya, T., Pingle, A., Boobes, Y. & Pingle, S. Analysis of 490 kidney biopsies: Data from the United Arab Emirates renal diseases registry. J. Nephrol. 11(3), 148–150 (1998).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 75.

    Hurtado, A. et al. Distinct patterns of glomerular disease in Lima, Peru. Clin. Nephrol. 53, 325–332 (2000).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 76.

    Okpechi, I. et al. Patterns of renal disease in Cape Town South Africa: A 10-year review of a single-centre renal biopsy database. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 26, 1853–1861. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq655 (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 77.

    Parichatikanond, P. et al. An analysis of 3,555 cases of renal biopsy in Thailand. J. Med. Assoc. Thai 89(Suppl 2), S106–S111 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 78.

    Sarishvili, N. et al. MO312MAIN trends and outcomes of kidney disease in Georgia: The first review of kidney biopsy database from 2011 to 2020. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab104.0070 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 79.

    Visconti, L. et al. Renal biopsy: Still a landmark for the nephrologist. World J. Nephrol. 5, 321–327. https://doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v5.i4.321 (2016).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 80.

    Rovin, B. H. et al. KDIGO 2021 clinical practice guideline for the management of glomerular diseases. Kidney Int. 100, S1–S276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.05.021 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 81.

    Ungvari, Z. et al. Hypertension-induced cognitive impairment: From pathophysiology to public health. Nat. Rev. Nephrol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-021-00430-6 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 82.

    Guillevin, L. et al. Microscopic polyangiitis: Clinical and laboratory findings in eighty-five patients. Arthritis Rheum. 42, 421–430. https://doi.org/10.1002/1529-0131(199904)42:3%3c421::AID-ANR5%3e3.0.CO;2-6 (1999).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 83.

    Ramos, R. et al. Renal involvement in benign monoclonal gammopathies: An underdiagnosed condition. Nefrologia 28, 525–529 (2008).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 84.

    Nasr, S. H. et al. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 20, 2055–2064. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2009010110 (2009).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 85.

    Larsen, C. P. et al. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with masked monotypic immunoglobulin deposits. Kidney Int. 88, 867–873. https://doi.org/10.1038/ki.2015.195 (2015).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 86.

    Sethi, S. & Rajkumar, S. V. Monoclonal gammopathy-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis. Mayo Clin. Proc. 88, 1284–1293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.08.002 (2013).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 87.

    White, M. C. et al. Age and cancer risk: A potentially modifiable relationship. Am. J. Prev. Med. 46, S7–S15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2013.10.029 (2014).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 88.

    Deegens, J. K. & Wetzels, J. F. Membranous nephropathy in the older adult: Epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Drugs Aging 24, 717–732. https://doi.org/10.2165/00002512-200724090-00002 (2007).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 89.

    Couser, W. G. Primary membranous nephropathy. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 12, 983–997. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11761116 (2017).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 90.

    Bray, F. et al. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J. Clin. 68, 394–424. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21492 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 91.

    White, A. et al. A review of sex-related differences in colorectal cancer incidence, screening uptake, routes to diagnosis, cancer stage and survival in the UK. BMC Cancer 18, 906. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4786-7 (2018).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 92.

    Lerner, G. B., Virmani, S., Henderson, J. M., Francis, J. M. & Beck, L. H. A conceptual framework linking immunology, pathology, and clinical features in primary membranous nephropathy. Kidney Int. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.03.028 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 93.

    Quinn, G. et al. Renal histologic analysis provides complementary information to kidney function measurement for patients with early diabetic or hypertensive disease. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. https://doi.org/10.1681/asn.2021010044 (2021).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 94.

    Kitching, A. R. et al. ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nat. Rev. Dis. Primers 6, 71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0204-y (2020).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 95.

    Shi, J., Shen, Q., Chen, X. M. & Du, X. G. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in microscopic polyangiitis patients with renal involvement: A study of 124 Chinese patients. BMC Nephrol. 20, 339. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1535-3 (2019).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 96.

    Flossmann, O. et al. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 70, 488–494. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2010.137778 (2011).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 97.

    Agard, C., Mouthon, L., Mahr, A. & Guillevin, L. Microscopic polyangiitis and polyarteritis nodosa: How and when do they start?. Arthritis Rheum. 49, 709–715. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.11387 (2003).

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 98.

    Mohammad, A. J. An update on the epidemiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 59, iii42–iii50. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa089 (2020).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 99.

    Gibson, A., Stamp, L. K., Chapman, P. T. & O’Donnell, J. L. The epidemiology of Wegener’s granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis in a Southern Hemisphere region. Rheumatology (Oxford) 45, 624–628. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kei259 (2006).

    CAS 
    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 100.

    Watts, R. A., Lane, S. E., Bentham, G. & Scott, D. G. Epidemiology of systemic vasculitis: A ten-year study in the United Kingdom. Arthritis Rheum. 43, 414–419. https://doi.org/10.1002/1529-0131(200002)43:2%3c414::Aid-anr23%3e3.0.Co;2-0 (2000).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 101.

    Mohammad, A. J., Jacobsson, L. T., Westman, K. W., Sturfelt, G. & Segelmark, M. Incidence and survival rates in Wegener’s granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome and polyarteritis nodosa. Rheumatology (Oxford) 48, 1560–1565. https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kep304 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 102.

    Chen, K. R. Skin involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 17, 676–682. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10157-012-0736-x (2013).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 103.

    Cornec, D., Cornec-Le Gall, E., Fervenza, F. C. & Specks, U. ANCA-associated vasculitis—Clinical utility of using ANCA specificity to classify patients. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 12, 570–579. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2016.123 (2016).

    CAS 
    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 104.

    Bazina, M. et al. Epidemiology of renal disease in children in the region of southern Croatia: A 10-year review of regional renal biopsy databases. Med. Sci. Monit. 13, CR172–CR176 (2007).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 105.

    Tomson, C. R. V. Primary Renal Disease (PRD) codes; ERA-EDTA registry (University of Amsterdam, 2018).


    Google Scholar
     



  • Source link

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

    For security, use of Google's reCAPTCHA service is required which is subject to the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Use.

    I agree to these terms.