In people age 19 years or younger, rates of type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased 45.1% and 95.3%, respectively, Jean M. Lawrence, doctor of science, and colleagues at of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, found in a new study.
Understanding differences and trends in the rise of diabetes “is essential to describe the burden of disease and to estimate current and future resource needs,” Lawrence and colleagues wrote in JAMA.
The study, which includes data from individuals in six areas across the United States: Colorado, California, Ohio, South Carolina, Washington state, and Arizona/New Mexico (Indian Health Services). In the report, 3 years were evaluated: 2001, 2009, and 2017. For each year, about 3.5 million youths were included. Findings were reported in terms of diabetes type, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, and sex.
Rates of type 1 diabetes per 1,000 youths increased from 1.48 in 2001, to 1.93 in 2009, and finally 2.15 in 2017. Across the 16-year period, this represents an increase of of 45.1%. Prevalence increased most among non-Hispanic white people (0.93 per 1,000) and non-Hispanic Black (0.89 per 1,000) youths.
While type 2 diabetes was comparatively less common, rates increased to a greater degree, rising 95.3%. Increases were again greater among Black and Hispanic youth.
Lawrence and colleagues offered several possible factors driving these trends in type 2 diabetes.
“Changes in … risk factors appear to play a significant role,” they wrote, noting that, “Black and Mexican American teenagers experienced the greatest increase in prevalence of obesity/severe obesity from 1999 to 2018, which may contribute to race and ethnicity differences.”
Megan Kelsey, MD, associate professor of pediatric endocrinology, medical director of the bariatric surgery center at Children’s Hospital Colorado in Aurora, says the increased rates of type 2 diabetes are alarming, yet they pale in comparison with what’s been happening since the pandemic began.