Okoro CA, Hollis ND, Cyrus AC, et al. Prevalence of disabilities and health care access by disability status and type among adults — United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;67:882–7.
Fried LP, Kronmal RA, Newman AB, Bild DE, Mittelmark MB, Polak JF, et al. Risk factors for 5-year mortality in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. JAMA. 1998;279(8):585–92. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.8.585.
Research, statistics, data & systems. CMS.gov. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems. Accessed 10 April 2021,
Sharkey JR, Giuliani C, Haines PS, Branch LG, Busby-Whitehead J, Zohoori N. Summary measure of dietary muscu-loskeletal nutrient (calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phosphorous) intakes is associated with lower extremity physical performance in homebound elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(4):847–56. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/77.4.847.
Semba RD, Bartali B, Zhou J, Blaum C, Ko CW, Fried LP. Low serum micronutrient concentrations predict frailty among older women living in the community. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(6):594–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.6.594.
Michelon E, Blaum C, Semba RD, Xue QL, Ricks MO, Fried LP. Vitamin and carotenoid status in older women: associations with the frailty syndrome. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(6):600–7. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.6.600.
Bartali B, Semba RD, Frongillo EA, Varadhan R, Ricks MO, Blaum CS, et al. (2006) low micronutrient levels as a predictor of incident disability in older women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(21):2335–40. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.21.2335.
McClung JP. Iron, zinc, and physical performance. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019;188(1):135–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1479-7.
Rivas-García TE, Marcelo-Pons M, Martínez-Arnau F, Serra-Catalá N, Santamaría-Carrillo Y, Cauli O. Serum zinc levels and cognitive and functional evaluation in non-demented older patients. Exp Gerontol. 2018;108:28–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.03.003.
Lam PK, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett Connor E, et al. Plasma trace elements and cognitive function in older men and women: the rancho Bernardo study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12(1):22–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02982160.
Sandstead HH, Frederickson CJ, Penland JG. History of zinc as related to brain function. J Nutr. 2000;130(2):496S–502S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.2.496S.
Zheng J, Mao X, Ling J, He Q, Quan J. Low serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron as risk factors for osteoporosis: a meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014;160(1):15–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-0031-7.
Qu X, Yang H, Yu Z, et al. Serum zinc levels and multiple health outcomes: implications for zinc-based biomaterials. Bioact Mater. 2020;31:410–22.
Gaier ED, Kleppinger A, Ralle M, Mains RE, Kenny AM, Eipper BA. High serum cu and cu/Zn ratios correlate with impairments in bone density, physical performance and over-all health in a population of elderly men with frailty characteristics. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47(7):491–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2012.03.014.
Tsuboi A, Watanabe M, Kazumi T, et al. Association of serum copper/ zinc ratio with low-grade inflammation and low handgrip strength in elderly women. Biomed Res Trace Elem. 2013;24:163–9 https://doi.org/10.11299/brte.24.163.
Kusabiraki T, Tanimoto Y, Sugiura Y, et al. Usefulness of the nutrition screening initiative (NSI) in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. Bull Osaka Med Coll. 2014;60:27–34 https://www.osaka-med.ac.jp/deps/b-omc/articles/601/601kusabiraki.pdf.
Kumagai S, Watanabe S, Shibata H, Amano H, Fujiwara Y, Shinkai S, et al. Effects of dietary variety on declines in high-level functional capacity in elderly people living in a community. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2003;50(12):1117–24.
Sugiura Y, Tanimoto Y, Imbe A, Inaba Y, Sakai S, Shishikura K, et al. Association between functional capacity decline and nutritional status based on the nutrition screening initiatives checklist: a 2-year cohort study of Japanese community-dwelling elderly. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166037. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166037.
de Jong N, Gibson RS, Thomson CD, Ferguson EL, McKenzie JE, Green TJ, et al. Selenium and zinc status are suboptimal in a sample of older New Zealand women in a community-based study. J Nutr. 2001;131(10):2677–84. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.10.2677.
Younesi S, Parsian H, Hosseini SR, Noreddini H, Mosapour A, Bijani A, et al. Dyshomeostasis of serum oxidant/antioxidant status and copper, zinc, and selenium levels in elderly physically disabled persons: an AHAP-based study. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2015;166(2):136–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-015-0261-3.
Kosaka K, Yamashita S, Ando C, et al. Relationships among body mass index, activities of daily living and zinc nutritional status in disabled elderly patients in nursing facilities. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2013;59(5):420–30. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.59.420.
Markiewicz-Żukowska R, Gutowska A, Borawska MH. Serum zinc concentrations correlate with mental and physical status of nursing home residents. PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0117257. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117257.
Hennigar SR, Lieberman HR, Fulgoni VL 3rd, et al. Serum zinc concentrations in the US population are related to sex, age, and time of serum draw but not dietary or supplemental zinc. J Nutr. 2018;148(8):1341–51. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy105.
Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FW, et al. Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition. 1996;12(5):344–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(96)80058-X.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/Index.htm. Accessed 10 Apr 2021.
Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, et al. Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA. 1963;185(12):914–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1963.03060120024016.
Jindai K, Nielson CM, Vorderstrasse BA, et al. Multimorbidity and functional limitations among adults 65 or older, NHANES 2005–2012. Prev Chronic Dis 2016; 13: 160174. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.160174
Jette AM, Davies AR, Cleary PD, et al. The Functional Status Questionnaire: reliability and validity when used in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 1986 May-Jun;1(3):143–9. Erratum in: J Gen Intern Med 1986;1(6):427.
Merrill SS, Seeman TE, Kasl SV, Berkman LF. Gender differences in the comparison of self-reported disability and performance measures. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(1):M19–26. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/52a.1.m19.
Latham NK, Mehta V, Nguyen AM, Jette AM, Olarsch S, Papanicolaou D, et al. Performance-based or self-report measures of physical function: which should be used in clinical trials of hip fracture patients? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(11):2146–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.04.016.
Copper, selenium & zinc – serum in “2011–2012 Data document, codebook, and frequencies, NHANES. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/2011-2012/CUSEZN_G.htm. Accessed 10 Apr, 2021.
NHANES laboratory data. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/search/datapage.aspx?Component=Laboratory. Accessed 10 Apr 2021.
Khorshidi M, Zarezadeh M, Sadeghi A, Teymouri A, Emami MR, Kord-Varkaneh H, et al. The effect of zinc supplementation on serum leptin levels: a systematic review and Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Horm Metab Res. 2019;51(8):503–10. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0955-6662.
Ghasemi A, Zahediasl S, Hosseini-Esfahani F, Azizi F. Gender differences in the relationship between serum zinc concentration and metabolic syndrome. Ann Hum Biol. 2014;41(5):436–42. https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2013.870228.
Sun Y, Wang Y, Wang D, Zhou Q. Dietary zinc intake, supplemental zinc intake and serum zinc levels and the prevalence of kidney stones in adults. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2020;57:126410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.126410.
Auais M, Ahmed T, Alvarado B, Phillips SP, Rosendaal N, Curcio CL, et al. Gender differences in four-year incidence of self-reported and performance-based functional disability: the international mobility in aging study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2019;82:266–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2019.03.002.
Rahman MO, Liu J. Gender differences in functioning for older adults in rural Bangladesh. The impact of differential reporting? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55(1):M28–33. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/55.1.m28.
Mocchegiani E, Basso A, Giacconi R, Piacenza F, Costarelli L, Pierpaoli S, et al. Diet (zinc)-gene interaction related to inflammatory/immune response in ageing: possible link with frailty syndrome? Biogerontology. 2010;11(5):589–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-010-9276-5.
Mocchegiani E, Malavolta M, Lattanzio F, Piacenza F, Basso A, Abbatecola AM, et al. Cu to Zn ratio, physical function, disability, and mortality risk in older elderly (ilSIRENTE study). Age (Dordr). 2012;34(3):539–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9252-2.
Sebastian RS, Cleveland LE, Goldman JD, Moshfegh AJ. Older adults who use vitamin/mineral supplements differ from nonusers in nutrient intake adequacy and dietary attitudes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(8):1322–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2007.05.010.
Prasad AS, Brewer GJ, Schoomaker EB, Rabbani P. Hypocupremia induced by zinc therapy in adults. JAMA. 1978;240(20):2166–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1978.03290200044019.
Donangelo CM, Woodhouse LR, King SM, Viteri FE, King JC. Supplemental zinc lowers measures of iron status in young women with low iron reserves. J Nutr. 2002;132(7):1860–4. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.7.1860.
Nielsen FH, Milne DB. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc de-presses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(5):703–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601867.